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Download Optical physics solutions to the problems by Lipson S. PDF

By Lipson S.

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This implies that the reaction can proceed in either direction at any given moment, and that while water is continually dissociating, hydrogen and hydroxyl ions are continually associating to re-form water. Any volume of water thus contains at any given moment, water molecules ( H 0 ) , hydrogen ions (H ) and hydroxyl ions (OH") (see Fig. 3). The rate at which water dissociates depends on the number of water molecules present and occurs with difficulty, the rate of dissociation decreasing as the number of water molecules present decrease.

An indicator is used to show up the endpoint of the titration. The amount of acid or alkali used to bring about neutrality can then be used to calculate the hydrogen ion content of the solution being tested. Electronic devices, known as pH-meters, are in common use to determine the hydrogen ion concentration of solutions. More elegant devices are available for the direct measurement of the bicarbonate content and the pH of samples of blood and other tissue fluids. Equivalent mass It is usual to express concentration in terms of mass per unit volume, the litre being the unit of volume generally selected for chemical work.

For stability, three electrons need to be taken up to fill the outer orbit. Nitrogen is therefore a trivalent atom. Oxygen, on the other hand has six electrons in its outer orbit, needing two for stability. It is therefore a divalent atom. On the same basis carbon is tetravalent (Greek, tetartos = fourth). Different elements can behave similarly if their valency orbits have the same composition. W e find therefore that elements such as sodium with one valency electron, aluminium (Al) with three, phosphorus (P) with five and chlorine with seven behave completely differently chemically and physiologically.

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