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Download Organic Chemistry I as a Second Language: Translating the by David R. Klein PDF

By David R. Klein

Get a greater Grade in natural Chemistry

Organic Chemistry should be difficult, yet that doesn't suggest you can't get the grade you will have. With David Klein's natural Chemistry as a moment Language: Translating the fundamental innovations, you'll have the capacity to larger comprehend basic rules, remedy difficulties, and concentrate on what you must be aware of to succeed.

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Read or Download Organic Chemistry I as a Second Language: Translating the Basic Concepts (2nd Edition) PDF

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Additional resources for Organic Chemistry I as a Second Language: Translating the Basic Concepts (2nd Edition)

Example text

6 DRAWING RESONANCE STRUCTURES—STEP BY STEP Now we have all the tools we need. We know why we need resonance structures and what they represent. We know about what curved arrows are and where not to draw them. We know how to recognize bad arrows that violate the two commandments. We know how to draw arrows that get you from one structure to another, and we know how to draw in formal charges. We are now ready for the final challenge: drawing curved arrows when we do not know what the next resonance structure looks like.

But be careful—for purposes of drawing resonance structures, it is only a violation if we exceed an octet for a second-row element. However, there is no problem at all with a second-row element having fewer than an octet of electrons. For example: O O This carbon atom does not have an octet. This drawing is perfectly acceptable, even though the central carbon atom has only six electrons surrounding it. For our purposes, we will only consider the “octet rule” to be violated if we exceed an octet.

When we count the hydrogen atoms attached to this carbon, we see that there is only one hydrogen atom, not two, to give that carbon a total of three bonds. When we move the arrow shown above, the carbon will now get four bonds, and the second commandment has not been violated. The arrow above is valid, because the two commandments were not violated. PROBLEMS For each of the problems below, determine which arrows violate either one of the two commandments, and explain why. (Don’t forget to count all hydrogen atoms and all lone pairs.

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