By Peter Orlik, Volkmar Welker, Gunnar Floystad
Organic gentle Emitting Diodes: rules, features, and methods offers fresh advancements in natural electroluminescence and their software to gentle emitting diodes. In six chapters and entire with an in depth set of references, it describes and illustrates the actual ideas of natural LEDs and their electric and optical features with quite a lot of examples and functional stories. the writer offers a unified method of the outline and functioning of natural LEDs, according to a entire heritage of appropriate actual techniques and gives a transparent beginning for the prediction and layout of latest more advantageous electroluminescent units.
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Extra info for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: Principles, Characteristics & Processes
This is so called ‘‘55 dimer’’ in which the short molecular axes make an angle of (55 Æ 5 ) with each other while the long axes are parallel (Fig. 14a). Its 0–0 emission peak (ﬃ420 nm) falls within 0–1 vibronic component of anthracene crystal, thus lies far beyond long-wavelength excimer emissions . Two anthracene molecules linked chemically can still form excimer-like pairs though their formation competes with the formation of zero-overlap excited anthracene units. An example is 1,1-di(9-anthryl)alkane, which, in addition to the short-wavelength structured excitonic emission of the compound, reveals unstructured red-shifted components characteristic of charge-transfer type (Fig.
Single Component Emitters In addition to the localized (monomeric) excited states (MÃ ) (cf. Sec. 1), the locally excited pair states of excimer jMÃ Miloc, charge-transfer excimer jMþMÀiCT, and electromer (Mþ–MÀ) states can be created by light or electron–hole recombination in single component organic solids (Figs. 10 and 11). The term single component solids means that except for unavoidable chemical impurities, only one sort of molecules is present. The electronic structure of an excimer can be approximated by a linear combination of locally excited, jMÃ Miloc, and charge-transfer (CT), jMÃ MiCT, configurations of complexing species : jMÃ Mi ¼ ajMÃ Miloc þ bjMþ MÀ iCT ð17Þ The coefficients, a and b, determine the extent of mixing between local and CT configurations.
6%. This in the case exemplified by disordered tetracene and pentacene films for which the width of the Gaussian to fit the S0 ! 08 eV (ﬃ650 cmÀ1) depending on film formation conditions  (cf. Fig. 8). All disordered organic solids investigated so far show broad fluorescence spectra red-shifted with respect to the absorption spectra (cf. Fig. 7). They reveal the radiative decay of single molecule based excited states [71–74] but are strongly characteristic of excimers (double-molecule-based excited states) [62,72,74,75].